about_Profiles

TOPIC
	about_Profiles

SHORT DESCRIPTION
	Describes how to create and use a Windows PowerShell profile.

LONG DESCRIPTION
	You can create a Windows PowerShell profile to customize your environment
	and to add session-specific elements to every Windows PowerShell session
	that you start. 

	A Windows PowerShell profile is a script that runs when Windows PowerShell 
	starts. You can use the profile as a logon script to customize the 
	environment. You can add commands, aliases, functions, variables, snap-ins, 
	modules, and Windows PowerShell drives. You can also add other 
	session-specific elements to your profile so they are available in every
	session without having to import or re-create them.

	Windows PowerShell supports several profiles for users and host programs.
	However, it does not create the profiles for you. This topic describes the
	profiles, and it describes how to create and maintain profiles on your 
	computer.

	It explains how to use the NoProfile parameter of the Windows PowerShell 
	console (PowerShell.exe) to start Windows PowerShell without any profiles.
	And, it explains the effect of the Windows PowerShell execution policy on
	profiles.


 THE PROFILE FILES

	Windows PowerShell supports several profile files. Also, Windows PowerShell
	host programs can support their own host-specific profiles. 

	For example, the Windows PowerShell console supports the following basic 
	profile files. The profiles are listed in precedence order. The first 
	profile has the highest precedence. 


		Description				Path
		-----------				----
		Current User, Current Host $Home\[My ]Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Profile.ps1
		Current User, All Hosts	$Home\[My ]Documents\Profile.ps1
		All Users, Current Host	$PsHome\Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1
		All Users, All Hosts	 $PsHome\Profile.ps1


	The profile paths include the following variables:

		- The $PsHome variable, which stores the installation directory for
		Windows PowerShell.

		- The $Home variable, which stores the current user's home directory.


	In addition, other programs that host Windows PowerShell can support their
	own profiles. For example, Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting 
	Environment (ISE) supports the following host-specific profiles.


		Description				Path
		-----------				-----
		Current user, Current Host $Home\[My ]Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Microsoft.PowerShellISE_profile.ps1
		All users, Current Host	$PsHome\Microsoft.PowerShellISE_profile.ps1


	In Windows PowerShell Help, the "CurrentUser, Current Host" profile is the profile most
	often referred to as "your Windows PowerShell profile". 


 THE $PROFILE VARIABLE

	The $Profile automatic variable stores the paths to the Windows PowerShell
	profiles that are available in the current session. 

	To view a profile path, display the value of the $Profile variable. You can
	also use the $Profile variable in a command to represent a path.

	The $Profile variable stores the path to the "Current User, 
	Current Host" profile. The other profiles are saved in note properties of
	the $profile variable.

	For example, the $Profile variable has the following values in the Windows
	PowerShell console.


		Name							 Description			
		-----------						-----------
		$Profile						 Current User,Current Host  
		$Profile.CurrentUserCurrentHost	Current User,Current Host  
		$Profile.CurrentUserAllHosts	 Current User,All Hosts	 
		$Profile.AllUsersCurrentHost	 All Users, Current Host
		$Profile.AllUsersAllHosts		All Users, All Hosts	 
 

	Because the values of the $Profile variable change for each user and in
	each host application, ensure that you display the values of the
	profile variables in each Windows PowerShell host application that you use.

	To see the current values of the $Profile variable, type:

		$profile | get-member -type noteproperty


	You can use the $Profile variable in many commands. For example, the
	following command opens the "Current User, Current Host" profile in 
	Notepad:

		notepad $profile 


	The following command determines whether an "All Users, All Hosts" profile
	has been created on the local computer:

		test-path $profile.AllUsersAllHosts


 HOW TO CREATE A PROFILE

	To create a Windows PowerShell profile, use the following command format:

		if (!(test-path <profile-name>)) 
		 {new-item -type file -path <profile-name> -force}


	For example, to create a profile for the current user in the current 
	Windows PowerShell host application, use the following command: 

		if (!(test-path $profile)) 
		 {new-item -type file -path $profile -force}


	In this command, the If statement prevents you from overwriting an existing
	profile. Replace the value of the <profile-path> placeholder with the path
	to the profile file that you want to create.

	Note: To create "All Users" profiles in Windows Vista and later versions 
		of Windows, start Windows PowerShell with the "Run as administrator" 
		option.


 HOW TO EDIT A PROFILE

	You can open any Windows PowerShell profile in a text editor, such as 
	Notepad. 

	To open the profile of the current user in the current Windows PowerShell
	host application in Notepad, type:

		notepad $profile


	To open other profiles, specify the profile name. For example, to open the
	profile for all the users of all the host applications, type:

		notepad $profile.AllUsersAllHosts


	To apply the changes, save the profile file, and then restart Windows 
	PowerShell.   
 

 HOW TO CHOOSE A PROFILE

	If you use multiple host applications, put the items that you use in all
	the host applications into your $Profile.CurrentUserAllHosts profile.
	Put items that are specific to a host application, such as a command that 
	sets the background color for a host application, in a profile that is 
	specific to that host application.

	If you are an administrator who is customizing Windows
	PowerShell for many users, follow these guidelines:

		-- Store the common items in the $profile.AllUsersAllHosts profile.

		-- Store items that are specific to a host application in
		 $profile.AllUsersCurrentHost profiles that are specific to the host
		 application.

		-- Store items for particular users in the user-specific profiles.

	Be sure to check the host application documentation for any special
	implementation of Windows PowerShell profiles.


 HOW TO USE A PROFILE

	Many of the items that you create in Windows PowerShell and most commands 
	that you run affect only the current session. When you end the session, 
	the items are deleted.

	The session-specific commands and items include variables, preference 
	variables, aliases, functions, commands (except for Set-ExecutionPolicy),
	and Windows PowerShell snap-ins that you add to the session.

	To save these items and make them available in all future sessions, add
	them to a Windows PowerShell profile. 

	Another common use for profiles is to save frequently-used functions, 
	aliases, and variables. When you save the items in a profile, you can
	use them in any applicable session without re-creating them. 


 HOW TO START A PROFILE

	When you open the profile file, it is blank. However, you can fill it with
	the variables, aliases, and commands that you use frequently.

	Here are a few suggestions to get you started.

	-- Add commands that make it easy to open your profile. This is especially
	 useful if you use a profile other than the "Current User, Current Host" 
	 profile. For example, add the following command:
			 
		 function pro {notepad $profile.CurrentUserAllHosts}


	-- Add a function that opens Windows PowerShell Help in a compiled HTML 
	 Help file (.chm). 

		 function Get-CHM
			{
			 (invoke-item $env:windir\help\mui\0409\WindowsPowerShellHelp.chm)
		}

	 
	 This function opens the English version of the .chm file. However, you 
	 can replace the language code (0409) to open other versions of the .chm
	 file.


	-- Add a function that lists the aliases for any cmdlet.

		 function Get-CmdletAlias ($cmdletname)
		 {
			get-alias | Where {$_.definition -like "*$cmdletname*"} | ft Definition, Name -auto
		 }


	-- Add an Add-PsSnapin command to add any Windows PowerShell snap-ins that 
	 you use.

	-- Customize your console.

		 function Color-Console 
		 {
				$host.ui.rawui.backgroundcolor = "white"
				$host.ui.rawui.foregroundcolor = "black"
				$hosttime = (dir $pshome\powershell.exe).creationtime
				$Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle = "Windows PowerShell $hostversion ($hosttime)"
				clear-host
		 }
		 Color-console


	-- Add a customized Windows PowerShell prompt that includes the computer
	 name and the current path. 

		 function prompt 
		 {
			$env:computername + "\" + (get-location) + "> "
		 }


	 For more information about the Windows PowerShell prompt, see
	 about_Prompts.


 THE NOPROFILE PARAMETER

	To start Windows Powershell without profiles, use the NoProfile parameter
	of PowerShell.exe, the program that starts Windows PowerShell.

	To begin, open a program that can start Windows PowerShell, such as Cmd.exe
	or Windows PowerShell itself. You can also use the Run dialog box in 
	Windows. 

	Type:

		powershell -noprofile

	For a complete list of the parameters of PowerShell.exe,
	type:

		powershell -?


 PROFILES AND EXECUTION POLICY

	The Windows PowerShell execution policy determines, in part, whether you
	can run scripts and load configuration files, including the profiles. The
	Restricted execution policy is the default. It prevents all scripts from
	running, including the profiles. If you use the Restricted policy, the
	profile does not run, and its contents are not applied.

	A Set-ExecutionPolicy command sets and changes your execution policy. It is
	one of the few commands that applies in all Windows PowerShell sessions
	because the value is saved in the registry. You do not have to set it when
	you open the console, and you do not have to store a Set-ExecutionPolicy
	command in your profile.


 PROFILES AND REMOTE SESSIONS

	Windows PowerShell profiles are not run automatically in remote sessions,
	so the commands that the profileS add are not present in the remote session.
	In addition, the $profile automatic variable is not populated in remote sessions.

	To run a profile in a session, use the Invoke-Command cmdlet.

	For example, the following command runs the CurrentUserCurrentHost profile from
	the local computer in the session in $s. 

		invoke-command -session $s -filepath $profile

	The following command runs the CurrentUserCurrentHost profile from the remote
	computer in the session in $s. Because the $profile variable is not populated,
	the command uses the explicit path to the profile.

		invoke-command -session $s {invoke-expression "$home\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1"}

	After running this command, the commands that the profile adds to the session
	are available in $s.


SEE ALSO
	about_Automatic_Variables
	about_Functions
	about_Prompts
	about_Execution_Policies
	about_Signing
	about_Remote
	Set-ExecutionPolicy