A highly available virtual machine requires that you perform some specific configuration and tasks. Some configuration and tasks must be done before you make the virtual machine highly available, while others must be done afterward. Before you try to make a virtual machine highly available, review the following information to make sure that the virtual machine is configured appropriately.
Before you make the virtual machine highly available
Before you make the virtual machine highly available, you need to review, and in some cases, modify the networking, security, and storage in your environment.
- Networking. All nodes in the same
cluster must use the same name for the virtual network that
provides external networking for the virtual machines. For example,
if you created a virtual network through the Add Roles Wizard when
you installed the role, a name is assigned to the virtual network
based on the network adapter. This name will be different on each
physical computer. You must delete the virtual network and then
recreate it, using the same name on each physical computer in the
cluster. Also note that if a physical network adapter uses static
settings, such as a static IP address, and IPv6 is not disabled,
the static settings will be deleted when you connect a virtual
network to the physical adapter. In that case, you must reconfigure
the static settings.
- Processor. If the nodes in your
cluster use different processor versions, make sure that you
configure the virtual machine for processor compatibility. This
helps ensure that you can failover or migrate a virtual machine
without encountering problems due to different virtualization
features on different versions of the same manufacturer’s
processor. However, this does not provide compatibility between
different processor manufacturers.
- Security. To avoid potential problems
you might encounter trying to administer highly available virtual
machines, all nodes in the cluster must use the same authorization
policy. There are two ways you can accomplish this:
- Use a local, XML-based authorization store on
each node. The policy must be configured the same on each store in
- Use an authorization store located in Active
Directory Domain Services (AD DS).
- Use a local, XML-based authorization store on each node. The policy must be configured the same on each store in the cluster.
- Storage. You must use shared storage
that is supported by both the Failover Clustering feature and
Hyper-V. When you create the virtual machine, choose the option to
store the virtual machine in a new folder and specify the location
of the shared storage. For more information about cluster storage,
see Failover Clusters (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=143559).
The virtual machine must be turned off so that you can make it highly available. To make a virtual machine highly available, you run the High Availability wizard from the Failover Cluster Management snap-in and select Virtual Machine as the service or application to make highly available.
After you make the virtual machine highly available
After you make the virtual machine highly available, do the following:
- Install the guest operating system and the integration
services. For instructions, see Install a Guest
- Configure the virtual machine to take no action through Hyper-V
if the physical computer shuts down by modifying the Automatic Stop
Action setting to None. Virtual machine state must be
managed through the Failover Clustering feature. For more
information about the setting, see Virtual Machine
- If you use snapshots on a clustered virtual machine, all
resources associated with each snapshot must be stored on the same
shared storage as the virtual machine.
- If you change the configuration of a virtual machine, we
recommend that you use the Failover Manager snap-in to access the
virtual machine settings. When you do this, the cluster is updated
automatically with the configuration changes. However, if you make
changes to the virtual machine settings from the Hyper-V Manager
snap-in, you must update the cluster manually after you make the
changes. If the configuration is not refreshed after networking or
storage changes are made, a subsequent failover may not succeed or
may succeed but result in the virtual machine being configured
Changing the offline action affects the behavior of the virtual machine if a failover occurs. For example, if you choose a shutdown action and a failover occurs, the virtual machine will shut down instead of fail over to another node.
- By default, membership in the local
Administrators group, or equivalent, is the minimum required
to complete this procedure. However, an administrator can use
Authorization Manager to modify the authorization policy so that a
user or group of users can complete this procedure. For more
information, see Using Authorization Manager for Hyper-V Security